Alzheimer's Disease has had many failures, and various companies have had mixed results. Bayesian approaches can bring clarity to the inference and primary question: "Does this treatment work?"
You may have heard, “Always do subgroup analysis, but never believe them.” Don't believe this.
The over-reliance on p-values can lead to misinterpretation of data and a $150 million bet on a subgroup with scant evidence.
How do we know when an observed effect is real or spurious?