Alzheimer's Disease has had many failures, and various companies have had mixed results. Bayesian approaches can bring clarity to the inference and primary question: "Does this treatment work?"
Implicit models in the back of our minds can creep into explicit models creating biased predictions that have societal implications.
You may have heard, “Always do subgroup analysis, but never believe them.” Don't believe this.
The over-reliance on p-values can lead to misinterpretation of data and a $150 million bet on a subgroup with scant evidence.